The need for differential diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax
  • Treatment of malaria depends on factors like type of malaria infection, severity of infection, status of the host and associated conditions / diseases. All cases of falciparum malaria are potentially severe and life threatening, especially when managed inappropriately. A major reason for progression from mild through complicated to severe disease is missed or delayed diagnosis. Cerebral malaria is one of the most dramatic presentations of severe falciparum malaria. The other species, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae, cause mainly a febrile illness and only rarely lead to severe disease.Thus, treatment of P. falciparum (also resistant to many antimalarial drugs) will be different from that of P. vivax.
  • Also , if the co- infections of P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, the treatment will vary. Thus, it is important to detect the two parasites separately and simultaneously (in mixed infections) for accurate treatment and disease management.

    Limitations of Malarial Antibody detection:

  • Antibodies develop in the later stages of infection. False negative results are observed during early stage of infection. Thus, cannot be used for acute malaria detection.
  • Antibody levels can be high due to past exposure to malaria infection for upto 10 years in endemic areas.Thus positive result does not confirm active malaria infection.
  • It has less diagnostic value and poor correlation as compared to other methods.
  • Cross reactions by RF can affect results.
  • Most antibody based RDT's for malaria employ P.falciparum blood stage parasite as antigenic source. P. falciparum antigen coated on the test assay tends to cross react with the antibodies directed against P.ovale, P.malariae and P.vivax. Further some studies have also stated that cross reactions can often occur between Plasmodium and Babesia species.
Test Parameter Pf/pv antigen detection System Pf/pan antigen detection System
Detects
  • 1. P. falciparum specific pf HRP-2
  • 2. P. vivax specific pLDH
    • 1. P. falciparum specific pf HRP-2
    • 2. pan specific pLDH cospecific for all the Malarial spp.
      Spp detected
        P. falciparum,
        P.vivax
        P. falciparum,
        Plasmodium spp.
        Thus no differentiation between different malaria spp.
      Comments
      • Detects and differentiates P. falciparum as well as P. vivax.
      • Also detects mixed infections of P. falciparum and P. vivax.
      • Thus, helps in accurate treatment and disease management.
      • Detects and differentiates P. falciparum and non falciparum spp.
      • Does not differentiates between P. falciparum and P. vivax.
      • Thus, will have difficulty in treatment and further spp specific diagnosis will be required

      Also Available Immucheck Malaria Pf/Pan Rapid Test