Innate Immunity Pathway



The immune system is composed of two major subdivisions, the innate or nonspecific immune system and the adaptive or specific immune system. The innate immune system is a primary defense mechanism against invading organisms, while the adaptive immune system acts as a second line of defense. Both aspects of the immune system have cellular and humoral components by which they carry out their protective functions. In addition, there is interplay between these two systems, i.e., cells or components of the innate immune system influence the adaptive immune system and vice versa.

IL-12 (p40+p70) Primary Activity
  • Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a pleiotropic cytokine which is produced primarily by stimulated macrophages. IL-12 is a disulfide-linked heterodimeric cytokine composed of a 35kDa light chain (p35) and a 40kDa heavy chain (p40) resulting in the only biologically active 70kDa (p70) form of IL-12. The p40 subunit can also form a homodimer which has been shown to be able to bind the IL-12 Receptor and thus acts as an IL-12 antagonist.
IFN-g Primary Activity Clinical Applications
IL-2
  • Principal activator of macrophage function.
  • Therapeutic administration in deficient immune response.
  • Inflammatory disorders.
  • Parasitic diseases.

Hematopoiesis- Differentiation Pathway



Hematopoiesis is the process by which all the different cell lineages that form the blood and immune system are generated from a common pluripotent stem cell. During the life of an individual, two separate hematopoietic systems exist, both arising during embryonic development but only one persisting in the adult.

Primary Activity Clinical Applications
IL-2
  • Proliferation of B-cells and activated T-cells, NK function.
  • Central regulator of immune responses.
  • Systemic vasculitis.
  • Scleroderma patients
IL- 4
  • B-cell proliferation
  • Eosinophil and mast cell growth and function
  • IgE and class II MHC expression on B-cells
  • Inhibition of monokine production
  • Anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Involved in mechanisms of allergy

Parameters available: IL-1 b , IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-a, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII



Primary Activity Clinical Applications
IL-1
  • Key mediators of the host response to various infections, inflammatory and immunologic
    challenges. Two distinct human IL-1 species, IL-1a and IL-1b, have been identified.
  • Central regulator of immune responses.
  • Key role in inflammatory process.
  • Cancer.
  • Acute viral hepatitis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Septic shock.
  • Crohn’s Disease.
  • Graft rejection.
IL-6
  • Pleiotropic cytokine with multiple endocrine,paracrine and possibly autocrine activities in various tissues.
  • Important regulator of acute phase reaction.
  • Expressed early in any inflammatory response.
IL-8
  • Chemoattractant for neutrophils and T-Cells.
  • Psoriasis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Gout.
IL-10
  • Intercellular messenger to control migration and activation of leukocytes involved in
    inflammatory reactions and immunity.
  • Allergic responses.
  • Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
  • Tumor growth and hematopoietic development.
TNF-a
  • Initiates and potentiates any inflammatory response.
  • Antitumoral and growth regulatory activities
  • Cachexia.
  • Septic shock.
  • Graft rejection and graftversus-host disease.
  • Parasitic infections.
  • Several autoimmune diseases (arteriosclerosis).

Diasource Cytokines ELISA kits- Designed for IVD use in serum or plasma